PURIFICATIONS. Arabic taharah طهارة
The legal methods of purification under the Muslim law vary but slightly from those which were enjoined in the Talmudic law of the Jews; with the remarkable difference that whilst with the Muslim the simple act of purification suffices, the Jew was taught by the use of expiatory offering to discern to its full extent the connection between the outward sign and the inward fount of impurity.
The most minute regulations with reference to the subject of legal purification were laid down in the Jewish law, and are found in a treatise, of the Mishna. entitled Yadaim. See also Leviticus xv.
The following are the different acts of purification existing in Muslim law : —
1. Ghusl غسل. The ‘washing of the whole body to absolve it from uncleanlineas and to prepare it for the exercise of prayer, after the following acts: pollutio nocturna, menses, coitus, puerperium. [GHUSL.]
2. Ghusl-masnun غسل مسنون. Such washings of the whole body as are founded upon the sunnah or practice and precept of Muhammad, although they are not supposed to be of divine institution, namely, upon the admission of a convert to Islam, before the Friday prayer, on the festivals; after washing the dead; and after blood-letting. [GHUSL MASNUN.]
3. Wazu’ وضوء, or the simple ablution of hands, arms, ears, face, mouth, &&., before the recital of the usual prayers. [ABLUTION.]
4. Tayyammum تيمم, or the use of sand or dust instead of water for .the wazu’. [TAYAMMUM.]
5. Istinfa استنفاء the abstersion of the private parts. [ISTINJA’.]
6. Miswak مسواك, or the cleansing. of the teeth. [MISWAK.]
7. Mash مسع,or the touching of the boots whereby they become purified for prayer. [MASAH.]
8. Tathir تطهير, or the cleansing of vessels, articles of clothing, &c, from impurity, which is generally done by applying either water, or sand and dust, the mere sprinkling being sufficient. [TATHIR.]
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam