One of the wives of Muhammad. She was the widow of Sakran, a Quraish, and one of the early companions of the Prophet. Muhammed married her within two months of the death of Khadijah. (Muir’s Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 117.) She died A.H. 55.
طالوت, Heb. Shaool. King of Israel. Mentioned in the Qur’an as a king raised up of God to reign over Israel, to whom was given an excellent degree of knowledge and personal appearance.
The following is the account given of Saul in the Qur’an, with Mr. Lanes rendering of the commentator’s remarks in italics. (Mr. Stanley Lane Poole’s 2nd Ed.)
“Hast thou not considered the assembly of the children of Israel after the death of Moses, when they said unto a prophet of theirs, namely Samuel, set up for us a king. under whom we will fight in the way of God? He said unto them, if fighting be prescribed as incumbent on you, will ye, peradventure, abstain from fighting? They replied, And wherefore should we not fight in the way of God, since we have been expelled from our habitations and our children by their having been taken prisoners and slain? — The people of Goliath [Jaloot] had done thus unto them.— But when fighting was commanded them,. they turned back, excepting a few of them, who crossed the river with Saul. And God knoweth the offenders. And the prophet begged his Lord to send a king; whereupon he consented to send Saul. And their prophet said unto them. Verily God hath set up Saul as your king. They said, How shall he have the dominion over us, when we are more worthy of the dominion than he, (for he was not of the royal lineage, nor of the prophetic, and lie was a tanner, or a tender of flocks or herds,) and he hath not been endowed with ample wealth?’ He replied, Verily God hath chosen him as king over you. and increased him in largeness of knowledge and of body, (for he was the wisest of the children of Israel at that time, and the most comely of them, and the most perfect of them in make,) and God giveth his kingdom unto whom He pleaseth; and God is ample in His beneficence, knowing with respect to him who is worthy of the kingdom— And their prophet said unto them, when they demanded of him a sign in proof of his kingship, Verily the sign of his kingship the sign of his kingship shall be that the ark shall come unto you (in it were the images of the prophets: God sent it down unto Adam, and it passed into their possession; but the Amalekites took it from them by force: and. they used to seek victory thereby over their enemy, and to advance it in the fight , and to trust in it, as He whose name be exalted! — hath said); therein is tranquility [SAKINAH] from your Lord, and relics of what the family of Moses and the family of Aaron have left: namely, the two shoes (or sandals) of Moses, and his rod, and the turban of Aaron, and a measure of the manna that used to descend upon them, and the fragments of the tables [of the Law]: the angels shall bear it. Verily in this shall be a sign unto you of his kingship, if ye be believers. Accordingly the angels bore it between heaven and earth, while they looked at it until they placed it by Saul; whereupon they acknowledged his kingship and hastened to the holy war and he chose of their young men seventy thousand.
“And when Saul went forth with the troops from Jerusalem, and it was violently hot weather and they demanded of him water he said. Verily God will try you by a fever, that the obedient among you and the disobedient may appear (and it was between the Jordan and Palestine), and whoso drinketh thereof he is not of my party but he who tasteth not thereof the is of my party), excepting him who takes forth a draught in his hand, and is satisfied therewith, not adding to it, for he is of my party; — then they drank thereof abundantly excepting a few of them who were content only with a handful of water. It is related that it sufficed them for their own drinking and for their beasts and they were Three hundred and some who mote than ten. And when he had passed over it he and, those who believed with, they said, we have no power to today to contend against Goliath and his troops in, And they were cowardly, and passed nod over it. They who held it as certain that they should meet God at the resurrection (and they were those who had passed over it) said How manv a small body of men hath overcome a great body by the permission (or will) of God! And God is with the patient, to defend and aid. – And when they went, forth in battle against Goliath and his troops they said, O our Lord, pour upon us patience, and make firm our feet, by strengthening our hearts for the holy war, and help us against the unbelieving people! — And they routed them by the permission (or will) of God and David who was in the army of Saul slew Goliath.” (Surah ii. 247, 253)
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam