ABBASIDES Arabic al Abbasiyah العباسية
The name of a dynasty of Kalifahs descended from al-’Abbas, the son of ‘Abdu ‘l-Muttalib, and a paternal uncle of Muhammad. On account of their descent from so near a relation of the Prophet, – the Abbasides had, ever since the introduction of Islam, been very high in esteem amongst the Arabs, and had at an early period begun to excite the jealousy of the Umaiyade Khalifahs, who after the defeat of ‘Ali occupied the throne of the Arabian Empire, The Abbasides had for some time asserted their claims to the Khalifate, and in A.D. 746 they commenced open hostilities. In 749 the Abbaside Khalifah Abu ‘l-’Abbas, surnamed as-Saffah, “the blood-shedder,” was recognized as Khalifah at al-Kalifah, and Marwin II., the last of the Umaiyade Khalifahs, was defeated and slain.
Thirty-seven Khalifahs of the Abbaside dynasty reigned over the Muslim empire, extending over the period from A.H. 132 (A.D. 749-50) to A.H. 656 (A.D. 1258).
The names of the Abbaside Khalifahs are:– Adu ‘l-Abbas as-Saffah (A.D. 749), al-Mansur (A.D.754), al-Mahdi (A.D. 775), al-Hadi (A.D. 785), Harun ar-Rashid (A.D. 786), al-Amin (A.D. 809), al-Mamun (A.D.. 815), al-Mu’tasm (A.D. 883), al-Wasiq (A.D. 842), al-Mutawakkil (A.D. 847), al-Mutasir (A.D.861), al-Musta’in (A.D. 862), al-Mu’taaz (A.D. 866), al-Mabtadi (A.D. 869), al-Mu’tamid (A.D. 870), al-Mu’tazid (A.D. 892) al-Muktafi (A.D. 902), al-Muqtadir, (A.D. 908), al-Qahir (A.D. 932), ar-Razi (A.D. 934), al-Muttaqi (A.D. 940), al-Mustaqfi (A.D. 944), al-Muti’ (A.D. 945), at-Tai (A.D.974). al-Qadir (A.D.. 994), al-Qaim (A.D. 1081), al Muqtadi (A.D. 1075), al-Mustazhir (A.D. 1094). al-Mustarshid (A.D. 1118), ar-Rishid (A.D. 1135), al-Muqtafi (A.D. 1136), al-Mustanjid (A.D. 1160), al-Mustazi, (A.D. 1170), an-Nasir (A.D. 1180), az-Zahir (A.D. 1225), al-Mustanair (A.D. 1226), al-Musta’sim (A.D. 1242 to A.D. 1258).
In the reign of al-Musta’sim Hulaku, grandson of Jingiz Khan, entered Persia and became Sultan A.D. 1266. In 1258 he took Baghdad and put the Kahlifah al Musta’sim to death. [KHALIFAH]
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam