In construction frequently spelled صلاةpl. salawat. The term used in the Qur’an, as well as amongst all Muslims in every part of the world, for the liturgical form or prayer, which is recited five times a day, an account of which is given in the article on PRAAYER. Its equivalent in Persian and Urdu is namaz, which has been corrupted into nmuz by the Afghans. The word occurs with this meaning in the Qur’an, Surah ii. 239: “Observe the prayers,” and in very many other places. It has also the meaning of prayer or supplication in its general sense, e.g. Surah ix. 104: “Pray for them, of a truth thy prayers shall assure their minds..” Also blessing, e.g. Surah xxxiii. 56: “Verily God and His Angels bless (not “pray for,” as rendered by Palmer) the Prophet.” (See Lane’s Dictionary, in loco.)
The word salat occurs with various combinations used to express different periods, and also special occasions of prayer.
The five stated liturgical prayers which are held to be of divine institution:—
(1) Salatu ‘l-Zuhr, the meridian prayer.
(2) Salatu ‘l-Asr, the afternoon prayer.
(3) Salatu ‘l-.Maghrib the sunset prayer.
(4) Salatu ‘l-‘Isha’, the night prayer.
(5) Salatu ‘l-Fajr, the prayer at dawn.
(Obs. The midday prayer is reckoned the first in order.)
Also for the three voluntary daily liturgical prayers:-
1. Salatu ‘l-Ishraq, when the sun has well risen.
2. Salatu ‘l-Zuha, about 11 A.M.
3. Salatu ‘l-Zahahud, after midnight.
Liturgical prayers said on special occasion are given below. [PRAYER.]
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam