pl. of fitnah. Seditions; strifes; commotions.
A term specially used for those wars and commotions which shall precede the Resurrection. A chapter is devoted to the subject in all the books of traditions (See Sahihu ‘l Bukhari, p 1045; Sahihu Muslim p 388)
Muhammad is related to have said “There will be Khalifahs after me that will not go the straight road in which I have gone, nor will follow my example, but in those times there will be the hearts of devils in the bodies of men.” Huzaifah then said to him, “O Prophet, what shall I do if I live to see those days? And the Prophet said, “Obey him who has the rule over you, even though he flog your back and take your money.”
Saliyah, in a tradition recorded in the at-Tirmizi and Abu Daud said that Muhammad said that the succession would last for thirty years, and that the “four rightly directed Khalifahs”, reigned exactly that time; Abu Bakr, two years; ‘Umar, ten; ‘Uthman, twelve; and Ali, six.
A mover or leader of sedition is called a baght or rebel. [REBELLION.]
FITRAH فطرةLit. “Nature.” Certain ancient practices of the prophets before the time of Muhammad which have not been forbidden by him.
‘Ayishah relates that the Prophet said: There are ten qualities of the prophets – clipping the mustachios so that they do not enter the mouth nor cutting or shaving the beard. Cleansing the teeth (i.e. miswak), cleansing the nostrils with water at the usual ablutions cutting the nails, cleaning the finger joints, pulling out the hairs under the arm pits, shaving the hair of the privates washing with water after passing urine, and cleansing the mouth with water at the time of ablution.” (See Sahih Muslim)
The nose is to be washed out with water because it is supposed that the devil resides in the nose during the night. (See Mishkat)
There is a chapter in the Avesta of the Parsees, containing injunctions as to the paring of the nails of the hands and feet.
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam