Posted on 04/10/2012 by marina

Wikis > Dictionary of Islam > Ilmu'l-Falak

ILMU ‘L-FALAK علم الفلك
The science of Astronomy. According to the Muslims the earth is the centre of the astronomical system. The seven planets which are called the nujumi, ‘s-saiyarat or wandering stars as distinguished from fixed stars, are 1. Qamar, Moon; 2. ‘Utarid, Mercury; 3. Zuhrah, Venus; 4. Shams, Sun; 5. Mirrikh, Mars; 6. Mustari, Jupiter; 7. Zuhal, Saturn.
The Arabian arrangement of the planets is that of Ptolemy, who placed the earth in the centre of the universe, and the nearest to it the moon, whose synodic revolution is the shortest of all, being performed in 29 ½ days. Next to the moon he placed Mercury, who returns to him conjunctions in 116 days. After Mercury followed Venus, whose periodic time is 584 days. Beyond Venus he placed the sun, then Mars, next Jupiter, and lastly Saturn, beyond which are the fixed stars.
The signs of the zodiac (mintaqalu ‘l-buruq) are called : 1. Hamal, Ram; 2. Saur, Bull; 3. Jauza, Twins; 4. Saratan, Crab; 5. Asad, Lion; 6. Sunbalah (lit. and ear of corn). Virgin; 7. Mizan, Scales; 8. Aqrab, Scorpion; 9. Qaus (bow), Archer; 10. Jady (he goat), Capricaorn; 11. Dalw (watering-pot). Aquarius; 12. Hul, Fish.

Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam