pl. Akasirah. The Chosroes,or Cyrus, a name given to almost every king of Persia of Sassanian dynasty (like Caesar among the Romans and Pharaoh among the Egyptians). The kings of Persian prior to Islam, according to Arab historians, composed four dynasties, namely, the Peshdadians, the chronology of which is unknown, the Kayanians, which ended B.C. 331, when Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great; the Ashkanians, which terminated A.D. 202; and the Sassanian, the last of whom was overcome by the Arabs, A.D. 636.
From the Qur’an, Surah xxx. 1, it appears that after the taking of Jerusalem by Chosroes, the sympathies of Muhammad were all enlisted on the side of the Caesar, and he foretells his ultimate victory over the king of Persina:-
“The Greek have been conquered in the neighboring coast, but is a few years after their defeat they shall again be victorious.”
In the sixth year of Hijrah, Muhammad sent a dispatch to Chosroes, inviting him to Islam. Sir William Muir says (Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 384):-
“The despatch for the King of Persia reached the Court probably some months after the accession of Siroes. It was delivered to the Monarch, who, on hearing the contents, tore it to pieces. When this was reported to Mahomet, he prayed and said: ‘Even thus, O Lord! Rend Thou his kingdom from him.’ Connected with the court of Persia, but of date somewhat earlier than the despatch sent to it, is a remarkable incident, which was followed by results of considerable importance.”
“A few months before his overthrow, the Chosroes, receiving strange reports of the prophetical claims of Mahomet, and of the depredations committed on the Syrian border by his marauding bands, sent order to Badzan, the Persian Governor of Yemen, to despatch two trusty men to Medina, and procure for him certain information regarding the Pretender. Badzan obeyed, and with the messengers sent a courteous despatch to Mahomet. By the time they arrived at Medina, tidings had reached the Prophet of the deposition and death of Chosroes. When the despatch, therefore, was read before him, he smiled at its contents, and summoned the ambassadors to embrace Islam. He then apprized them of the murder of the Chosroes and the accession of his son. ‘Go,’ said he, ‘inform your master of this, and require him to tender his submission to the Prophet of the Lord.’ The glory of Persia had now departed. She had long ago relaxed her grasp upon Arabia; and the Governor of Yemen was free to choose a protectorate more congenial to his people. Badzan, therefore, gladly recongnised the rising fortunes of Islam, and signified his adhesion to the Prophet. From the distance of this province, its allegiance was at the first little more than nominal; but the accession served as a point for further action, and meanwhile added new prestige to the Prophet’s name.”
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam