MUHAMMAD, The Wives of. Arabic al-azwaju ‘l-mutahharat الازواج المطهرات
i.e. “The pure wives.” According to the Traditions, Muhammad took to himself eleven lawful wives. (See Majmatu ‘l-Bihar, p. 528.)
(1) Khadijah خديجة a Quraish lady, the daughter of Khuwailid ibn Asad. She was a rich widow lady, who had been twice married. She was married to Muhammad when he was 25 years old, and the was 40 years, and remained his only wife for twenty-five years, until she died (A.D. 619), aged 65, Muhammad being 60 years old. She bore Muhammad two sons, al-Qasim and ‘Abdu ‘llah, surnamed at-Tahir and at-Taiyib, and four daughters, Zainab, Ruqaiyah, Fatimah, and Ummu Kulsum. Of these children, only Fatimah (the wife of ‘Aus survived Muhammad.
(2) Saudah صودة daughter of Zama’ah the widown of as-Sakran, a Quraish and one of the Companions). Married about two months after the death of Khadija.
(3) ‘Ayishah عاىشة the ,daughter of Abu Bakr. She was betrothed when she was only 7 years old, and was married at 10, about the ninth month alter the flight to al-Madinah.
(4) Juwairiyah جويرية , a widow, the daughter of al-Haris ibn Abi Zirar, the chief of the Banu Mustaliq. Muhammad ransomed her from a citizen who had fixed her ransom at nine ounces of gold. It is related that ‘Ayishah said, ” No woman was ever a greater blessing to her people than this Juwairiyah.”
(5) Hafsah حفصة the daughter of ‘Umar. She was the widow of Khunais, an early convert to Islam. Muhammad married her shout six months after her former husband’s death.
(6) Zainab, the daughter of Khuzaimah زينب بنت خزيمة the widow of Muhammad’s cousin ‘Ubiudab, who was killed at the battle of Badr. She was called the “Mother of the Poor,” Ummu ‘l-Masukin, on account of her care of destitute converts. She died before Muhammad.
(7) Ummu Salimah ام سلمة , the widow of Abu Salimah, one of the Refugees, who was wounded at the battle of Uhud, and afterwards died of his wounds.
(8) Zainab the daughter of Jabsh زينب بنت جبش wife of Muhammad’s adopted aon Zaid. She was (being the wife of an adopted son) unlawful to him, but Surah xxxiii. 36 was produced to settle the difficulty.
(9) Safiyah صفية , daughter of Hayi ibn Akhtab, the widow of Kinanah, the Khaibar chief, who was cruelly put to death.
(10) Ummu Habibah ام حبيبة, the daughter at Abu Sufyan and the widow of ‘Ubaidu’llah, one of the “Four Enquirers,” who, after emigrating so a Muslim to Abyssinia, had embraced Christianity there, and died in. the profession of that faith.
(11) Maimunah ميمونة, the daughter of al-Haris and widowed kinswoman of Muhammad, and the sister-in-law of al-’Abbas. She is said to have been 51 years of age when she married Muhammad.
Another wife (disputed) was:
Mary the Copt مارية القبطيةA Christian slave-girl sent to Muhammad by al-Muqauqis, the Roman Governor in Egypt. She became the mother of a son by Muhammad, named Ibrahim, who died young.
At the tune of Muhammad’s death, he had nine wives. (Sahihu ‘l-Bukhari, p. 798). Khadijah and Zainab bint Khuzaimah having died before him.
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam