Rulers

Posted on 06/29/2012 by marina

RULERS. The ideal administration of the Muslim world, as laid down in the Traditions, is that the whole of Islam shall be under the dominion of one Imam or leader, who is the Khalifah خاليفةor vicegerent, of the Prophet on earth. The rulers of provinces under this Imam are called Amir امير(pI. Umara’). The Eastern titles of SuItan and Shah are not established in the Muslim religion. The word Malik, Heb. Melekh, occurs in the Qur’an for a “king,” and is used for King Saul (Surah ii. 248). The word is still retained in Asia for the chiefs of villages.
In the Qur’an (Surah iv. 62), believers are enjoined to “obey the Apostle and those in authority,” but the chief injunctions are found in the Traditions.
In the Mishkatu ‘l-Masabih, book xvi. ch, i., the following sayings of Muhammad regarding rulers are recorded:-
“Whoever obeys me obeys God, and whoever disobeys me disobeys God. Whoever obeys the ‘Amir obeys me. An Imam is nothing but a shield to fight behind, by which calamities are avoided; and if he orders you to abstain from that which is unlawful, he will have great regard; but if he enjoins that which God has forbidden, he will bear the punishment of his own acts.”
“If God appoints as your Amir a man who is a slave, with his ears and nose cut off, and who puts people to death according to God’s book, then you must listen and obey him in all things.”
If a negro slave is appointed to rule over you, you must listen to him and obey him, even though his head be like a dried grape.”
“It is indispensable for every Muslim to listen to and approve the orders of the Imam, whether he likes or dislikes, so long as he is not ordered to sin and act contrary to law when he is ordered to sin, he must neither attend to it not obey it.”
“There is no obedience due to sinful commands, nor to any order but what is lawful.”
“He who shall see a thing in his ruler which he dislikes, let him be patient, for verily there is not one who shall separate a body of Muslims the breadth of a span, and he dies, but he dies like the people of ignorance.”
“The best Imams are those you love, and those who love you, and those who pray for compassion on you, and you on them ; and the worst of Imams are those you hate, and those who hate you; and those whom you curse, and who curse you.” Auf said. “O Prophet of God! when they are our enemies and we theirs, way we not fight against them?’ He said. “No. so long as they keep on foot the pray on amongst you.” This he repeated. “Beware, he who shall be constituted your ruler, see if he does anything in disobedience to God, and if he does, hold it in displeasure, but do not withdraw yourselves from his obedience.”
“There will be Amirs among you, some of whose actions you will find conformable to law, and some contrary thereto; then when anyone who shall say to their faces, ‘These acts are contrary to law,’ verily he shall be pure; and he who has known their actions to be bad, and has not told them so to their faces, has certainly not remained free from responsibility, and he who has been a bad act and obeyed it, is their companion in it.” The Companions said, “May we not fight them?” The Prophet said, “No, so long as they perform prayers.”
“He who is disobedient to the Imam will come before God on the Day of Resurrection without a proof of his faith, and he who dies without having obeyed the Imam, dies as the people of ignorance.”
“Prophets were the governors of the children of Israel, and when one died, another supplied his place; and verily there is no prophet after me, and the time is near when there will be after me a great many Khalifahs.” The Companions said. “Thou what do you order us?” The Prophet said, “Obey the Khalifah, and. give him his due; for verily God will ask about the duty of the subject.”
”When two Khalifahs have been set up, put the last of them to death, and preserve the other, because the second is a rebel.”
“Whoever wishes to make divisions amongst my people, kill with a sword..”
“He who acknowledges an Imam must obey him as far as in his power, and if another pretender comes, kill him.”
“Verily the time is near that you will be ambitious of ruling; and it is at hand that this love of rule will be a cause of sorrow at the Resurrection, although the possession of it appears pleasant, and its departure unpleasant.”
“That is the beat of men who, dislikes power.”
“Beware! you are all guardians of the subject, and you will all be asked about your obedience. The Imam is the guardian of the subject, and he will be asked respecting this, a man is as a shepherd to his own family, and will be asked how they behaved, and about his conduct to them; and a wife is a guardian to her husband’s house and children and will be interrogated about them; and a slave is a shepherd to his master’s property, and will be asked about it, whether he took good care of it or not.”
“There is no Amir who oppresses the subject and dies, but God forbids Paradise to him.”
“Verily the very worst of Amirs are those who oppress the subject.”
“O God! he who shall be ruler over my people and shall throw them into misery, O God! cast him into misery; and he who shall be chief of, my people and be kind to them, they be kind to him.”
“Verily, just princes will be upon splendid pulpits on the right hand of God; and both God’s hands are right.”
“God never sent any Prophet, nor ever made any Khalifah, but had two counsellors with him, one of them directing lawful deeds (that is, a good angel), and the other sin (that is, the devil). He is guarded from sin whose God has guarded.” [KAHLIFAH.]

Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam