HYPOCRISY. Arabic riya رياء, nifaq نفاق, makr مكر, mudahanat مداهنة.
When there is an allusion to hypocrisy in the Qur’an, it refers to the class of people known as al-Munafiqun, or the hypocrites of al-Madinah, who in the days of the Prophet professed to follow him, whilst secretly they opposed him [MUNAFIQUN.], vide Surahs ii. 7; xxxiii. 47; lvii. 13. But in the Traditions we have the following with reference to this. Mishkat, book i. ch. iii. pt. 3) : –
“The signs of hypocrisy are three: speaking falsely, promising and not performing, and being perfidious when trusted.”
“There are four qualities, which being possessed by anyone, constitute a complete hypocrite; and whoever has one of the four had one hypocritical quality till he discards it: perfidy when trusted, the breaking of agreements, speaking falsely, and prosecuting hostility by treachery.”
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam