Pl. Khulafa’, from khalf, “to leave behind.” Anglice, “Caliph.” A successor; a lieutenant; a vicegerent, or deputy. The word is used in the Qur’an for Adam, as the vicegerent of the Almighty on earth.
Surah ii. 28: “And when thy Lord said to the angels, ‘I am about to place a vicegerent (khalifah) on the earth,’ they said, ‘Wilt Thou place therein one who will do evil therein and shed blood?’”
And also for David:-
Surah xxxviii. 25: “O David! Verily We have made thee a vicegerent (khalifah); judge then between men with truth.”
In Muslimism it is the title given to the successor of Muhammad, who is vested with absolute authority in all matters of state, both civil and religious, as long as he rules in conformity with the law of the Qur’an and Hadis. The word more frequently used for the office in Muslim works of jurisprudence, is Iman (leader), or al-Imamu ‘l-A’zam (the great leader). It is held to be an essential principle in the establishment of the office, that there shall be only one Khalifah at the same time; for the Prophet said: “When two Khalifahs have been set up, put the last to death and preserve the other, for the last is a rebel.” (Mishkat, book xvi. ch. i.)
According to all Sunni Muslim books, it is absolutely necessary that the Khalifah be “a man, an adult, a sane person, a free man, a learned divine, a powerful ruler, a just person, and one of the Quraish (i.e. of the tribe of which the Prophet himself belonged).
The Shi’ahs hold that he should be one of the descendents of the Prophet’s own family; but this is rejected by the Sunnis and Wahhabis.
The condition that the Khalifah should be of the Quraish is very important, for thereby the present Ottoman Sultans fail to establish their claims to the Khalifate (Arabic Khalifah). The four immediate successors of Muhammad are entitled the Khulaf’u ‘r-Rashidin, or “the well-directed Khalifahs.” According to the Baghyatu ‘r-Raid, only the first five Khalifahs, abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Usman, ‘Ali, and al-Hassan, are entitled to the distinction of Khalifah, the others being merely Amirs; or Governors. After the deaths of the first five Khalifahs, the Khalifate, which is allowed by all parties to be elective and not hereditary, passed successively to the Umayades (Banu Umayah). The first Khalifah of this dynasty was Mu’awiyah, the grandson of Umaiyah of the Quraish tribe, who received the Khalifate from al-Hassan. Of the Umayades, there were fourteen Khalifahs who reigned at Damascus, extending over a period from A.H. 41 to A.H. 132 (A.D. 661 to A.D. 750). The title then passed to Abu ‘l-’Abbas, the fourth in descent from al-’Abbas, the uncle of Muhammd, and the Abbaside Khalifahs, thirty-seven in number, who reigned at Baghdad from A.H. 132 to A.H. 656 (A.D. 750 to A.D. 1258).
The temporal power of the Abbaside Khalifahs was overthrown by Halak Khan, grandson of the celebrated Chenjiz Khan, A.D.1258; but for three centuries, certain descendants of the Abbaside, or Baghdad Khalifahs, resided in Egypt, and asserted their claim to the spiritual power. The founder of the present dynasty of Turkish Sultans was ‘Usman (Othman), a chieftain descended from the Orghuz Turks (born at Sakut, A.D. 1259), who was at first the ruler of a small territory in Bithnyia, but who in 1299 invaded the whole country of Makkah, and subsequently extended his conquests to the Black Sea, and whose successor, Salim (ninth in descent), obtained the title of Khalifah from one of the Abbaside Khalifahs in Egypt. About the year A.D. 1515 (A.H. 921), Salim I., ruler of the Ottoman Turks and Emperor of Constantinople, finding himself the most powerful prince of his day in Islam, and wishing still further to consolidate his rule, conceived the idea of reviving in his own person the extinct glories of the Khalifate. He had more than one claim to be considered their champion by orthodox Muslims, for he was the grandson of that Muhammad II, who had finally extinguished the Roman Empire of the East; and he had himself just ended a successful campaign against the heretical Shah of Persia. His only rivals among Sunni princes were the Muslim Emperors in India, the Emperor of Morocco, and the Mameluke ruler of Egypt, then known to the world as par excellence, “the Sultan.” With the two former, as rulers of what were remote lands of Islam, Salim seems to have troubled himself little, but he made was on Egypt. In A.D. 1516 he invaded Syria, its outlying province, and in A.D. 1517 he entered Cairo.
There he made prisoner the reigning Mameluke, Qansau ‘l-Ghauri, and had him publically beheaded.
He then, in virtue of a very doubtful cession made to him of his rights by one Mutawakkil Ibn ‘Amri ‘l-Hakim, a descendant of the house of al-’Abbas, whom he found living as titular Khalifah in Cairo, took to himself the following style and title: Sultanu ‘s-Salatin wa Hakim, Maliku ‘l-Bahrain wa Hamiyu ‘l-Barrain, Khalifatu ‘r-Rasuli ‘llah Amiru ‘l-Mu’minin, wa Sutlan wa Khan; that is: “King of kings and Ruler of rulers, Monarch of the two seas (the Mediterranean and the Red Sea) and Protector of the two lands (al-Hijaz and Syria, the holy lands of Islam), Successor (Khalifah) of the Apostle of God, Ruler of the Faithful, King and Chief.” It is said that he first had the satisfaction of hearing his name mentioned in the public prayers as Khalifah when he visited the Great Mosque of Zacharias at Aleppo, on his return northwards in 1519.
Such are the titles still claimed by the Ottoman Sultans, who arrogate to themselves the position of Khalifahs and Successors to the Prophet. It is, however, a mere assertion; for the title and office being elective and not hereditary, it was not in the power of any Khalifah to transfer it to another. Force of circumstances alone has compelled the ruler of the Ottoman Empire to assume the position, and has induced his subjects to acquiesce in the usurpation. We have not seen a single work of authority, nor met with a single man of learning, attempting to prove that the Sultans of Turkey are rightful Khalifahs; for the assumption of the title by anyone who is not of the Quraish tribe is undoubtedly illegal and heretical, as will be seen from the following authorities: –
Mishkatu ‘l-Masabih, book xxiv. ch. xii.: “Ibn ‘Amr relates that the Prophet of God siad: ‘The Khalifah shall be in the Quraish tribe as along as there are two persons in it, one to rule and another to serve.’”
Sharha ‘l-Muwaqif, p. 606. Arabic edition, Egypt: “It is a condition that the Khalifah (Imam) be of the Quraish tribe. All admit this except the Khawarij and certain Mu’tazilahs. We all say with the Prophet: ‘Let the Khalifah be of the Quraish’; and it is certain that the Companions acted upon this injunction, for Abu Bakr urged it as an authority upon the Ansars, on the day of Sakhifah, when the Companions were present and agreed. It is, therefore, for a certainty established that the Khalifah must be of the Quraish.”
The Hujjatu ‘llahi ‘l-Balaghah, p. 335, Arabic edition, Delhi: ‘It is a necessary condition that the Khalifah (Imam) be of the Quraish tribe.”
The Kash’hafu ‘l Istilahat; A Dictionary of Technical Terms. Edited by Colonel N. Lees, in loco: “The Khalifah (Imam) must be a Quraish.”
It is a matter of history that the Wahhabis regarded the Turkish Sultan as a usurper, when Sa’ud took Makkah and al-Madinah in 1804; and to the present day, in countries not under Turkish rule, the khutbah is recited in behalf of the Amir, or ruler of the Muslim state, instead of the Ottoman Sultan, which would not be the case if he were acknowledged as a lawful Khalifah. In a collection of khutbahs, entitle the Majma’a Khutab, the name of the Sultan of Turkey does not once occur, although this collection as much used in Muslim states. We have seen it stated that the Sultan is prayed for in Hyderabad and Bengal; but we believe it will be found, upon careful inquiry, that he was not mentioned by name, until very recently, in any of the mosques of India, khutbahs, in which there are prayers for the Ottoman Sultan by name have been imported from Constantinople.
According to Mr. W.S. Blunt, the chief arguments of the Hanifite ‘Ulama’ in support of the claims of the present Ottoman dynasty are: –
(1) The right of the Sword. – The Khalifate being a necessity (and this all Muslims admit), it was also a necessity that the de facto holder of the title should be recognized until a claimant with a better title should appear. Now, the first qualification of a claimant was, that he should make the claim, and the second, that he should be supported by a party; and Salim had both claimed the Khalifate and supported his pretensions at the head of an army. He challenged the world to produce a rival, and no rival had been found.
(2) Election, that is, the sanction of a legal body of elders. It was argued that, as the ahlu ‘aqd (or council), had been removed from al-Madinah to Damascus, and from Damascus to Baghdad, and from Baghdad to Cairo, so it had been once more legally removed from Cairo to Constantinople. Salim had brought with him to St. Sophia’s some of the ‘Ulama’ (learned men) of the Azhar mosque in Cairo, and these in conjunction with the Turkish ‘Ulama had elected him or ratified his election. A form of election is to the present day observed at Constantinople in token of this right, and each new Sultan of the house of ‘Usman, as he succeeds to the temporal sovereignty of Turkey, must wait before being recognized as Khalifah till he has received the sword of office at the hands of the ‘Ulama’. This ceremony it is customary to perform in the mosque of Aiyub.
(3) Nomination. – Sutlan Salim, as has been already said, obtained from Mutawakkil, a descendent of the Abbasides, and himself titularly Khalifah, a full cession of all the Khalifah rights of that family. The fact, as far as it goes, is historical, and the only flaw in the argument would seem to be that Mutawakkil had no right thus to dispose of a title to an alien, which was his own only in virtue of his birth. As a precedent for nomination, they cite the act of Abu Bakr, who on his death-bed recommended ‘Umar as his successor in the Khalifate.
(4) The Guardianship of the Two Shrines Haraman. – that is to say of Makkah and Jerusalem, but especially of Makkah. It has been asserted by some of the ‘Ulama, and it is certainly a common opinion at the present day, that the sovereignty of al-Hijaz is in itself sufficient title to the Khalifate. It seems certainly to have been so considered in the first age of Islam, and many a bloody war was then fought for the right of protecting the Baitu ‘llah, but the connection of al-Hijaz with the empire of the Khalifahs has been too often broken to make this a very tenable argument. In the tenth century, Makkah was held by the Karmathian heretics, in the thirteenth by the Imams of San’a, and for seven years in the present century by the Wahhabis. Still the de facto sovereignty of the Haramain, or two shrines, was one of Salim’s pleas; and it is one which has reappeared in modern arguments respecting the Khalifal rights of his descendents.
(5) Possession of the Amanat, or sacred relics. This last is a plea addressed to the vulgar rather than to the learned; but it is one which cannot be passed by unnoticed here, for it exercises a powerful influence at the present day over the ignorant mass of Muslims. It was asserted, and is still a pious belief, that from the sack of Baghdad in A.D. 1258, certain relicts of the Prophet and his Companions were saved and brought to Cairo, and thence transferred by Salim to Constantinople. These wee represented as constituting the imperial insignia of office, and their possession as giving a title to the succession. They consisted of the cloak of the Prophet, borne by his soldiers as a standard of some hairs of the Prophet’s beard, and of the sword of ‘Umar. The vulgar still believe them to be preserved in the mosque of Aiyub at Constantinople. (See The Future of Islam, by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, London, 1882, p. 66.)
On the general question as to whether or not an Imam or Khalifah, is necessary for Islam, the author of the Sharhu ‘l-Muwaqif syas, “The appointment of an Imam (i.e. Khalifah) is incumbent upon the united body of Muslims, according to the orthodox law of the Sunnis, although the Mu’tazilahs and Zaidiyahs say it is merely expedient, but not ordered by the law, whilst the Ishmailiyahs and the Imamiyahs say God will Himself appoint an Imam for the establishment of sound doctrine. Some say the appointment of an Imam is only necessary when Muslims are at peace amongst themselves and united, and not when they are in a state of rebellion.
The arguments in favor of the absolute necessity of an Imam, or Khalifah, being appointed, are that in the time of Abu Bakr, the first Khalifah, it was established by general consent, and Abu Bakr, in his first khutbah after the death of Muhammad, said: “Beware! Muhammad is certainly dead, and it is necessary for this religion that some one should be appointed for its protection.” And all the Muslims at that time consented to this saying of Abu Bakr, and consequently in all ages Muslims have had an Imam. And it is well known that without such an officer Islam cannot be protected from evil, for without him it is impossible to maintain the orders of the Muslim law, such as marriage, Jihad, punishment and the various ordinances of Islam. (Sharhu ‘l-Muwaqif, p. 603.)
The following are some of the injunctions of Muhammad regarding the Imam or Khalifah:-
“When two Khalifahs have been set up, put the last of them to death and preserve the other, for the second is a rebel.”
“He who acknowledges an Imam must obey him as far as he can, and if a pretender comes, kill him.”
“Whomever God appoints as Imam, and he does not protect his people, shall never smell the smells of paradise.”
It is indispensable for every Muslim to listen to, and approve the orders of the Imam, whether he likes or dislikes, so long as he is not ordered to sin and act contrary to law; then when he is ordered to sin, he must neither attend to it nor obey it.”
“Whoever quits obedience to the Imam and divides a body of Muslims, dies like the people of ignorance; and whosover takes a part in an affray, without knowing the true from the false, does not fight to show his religion but to aid oppression; and if he is slain, then he dies as the people of ignorance; and that person who shall draw his sword upon my people, and kill the virtuous and the vicious, and not fear the killing of Muslims or those protected by them, is not of me nor am I of him.”
“The Companions said, ‘O Prophet! When they are our enemies and we theirs, may we not fight with them?’ He said, ‘No, so long as they keep on foot the prayers amongst you’; this he repeated, ‘Beware! He who shall be constituted your prince, see if he does anything in disobedience to God; and if he does, hold it in displeasure, but do not withdraw yourselves from his obedience.”
“He who forsakes obedience to the Imam, will come before God on the Day of Resurrection without a proof of his faith; and he who dies without having professed to the Imam, dies as the people of ignorance.”
“Prophets were the governors of the children of Israel; when one died, another supplied his place; and verily there is no prophet after me, and the time is near when there will be after me a great many Khalifahs. The Companions said, ‘Then what do you order us?’ The Prophet said, ‘Obey the Khalifah, and give him his due; for verily God will ask about the duty of the subject.’”
“Beware! You are all guardians, and you will all be asked about your subjects; then the Imam is the guardian of the subject, and he will be asked respecting the subject; and a man is as a shepherd to his own family, and will be asked how they behaved, and his conduct to them; and a wife is a guardian to her husband’s house and children, and will be interrogated about them; and a slave is a shepherd to his master’s property, and will be asked about it whether he took good care of it or not.”
“God never sent any prophet, nor ever made any Khalifah, but had two counselors with him; one of them directing lawful deeds, and that is an angel, and the other in sin, and that is the devil; and he is guarded from sin whom God has guarded.” (Mishkat, book xvi. ch. i.)
I. – The Khalifahs of the Sunnis, from the death of Muhammad to the present time.
(1) The four rightly directed Khalifahs, and al-Hasan (at Makkah):-
1. Abu Bakr, A.H. 11 (A.D. 632).
(Collected the Qur’an into one volume.)
2. ‘Umar A.H. 13 (A.D. 634).
(Conquered Egypt, Syria, and Persia.)
3. ‘Usman, A.H. 23 (A.D. 643).
(Invades Cyprus; revolt at al-Kufah.)
4. ‘Ali, A.H. 35 (A.D. 655).
(Revolt of Mu’awiyah; ‘Ali assassinated.) 5. Al-Hasan, A.H. 40 (A.D. 660).
(2) Umaiyade dynasty. The Banu Umaiyah (at Damascus):-
1. Mu’awiyah I. A.H. 41 (A.D. 661).
(Siege of Constantinople; makes Damascus the capital.)
2. Yazid I., A.H. 60 (A.D. 679).
(Destruction of al-Husain’s party and his death.)
3. Mu’awiyah II., A.H. 64. (A.D. 683).
4. Marwan I., A.H. 64 (A.D. 683).
5. ‘Abdu ‘l-Malik, A.H. 65 (A.D. 684).
(Arabian money first coined.)
6. Al-Walid I., A.H. 86 (A.D. 705.
(Conquest of Africa, Spain, Bukharah.)
7. Sulaiman, A.H. 96 (A.D. 715).
(Defeated before Constantinople; dies of grief.)
8. ‘Umar (Omer), A.H. 99 (A.D. 717).
9. Yazid II., A.H. 101 (A.D. 720).
(His generals successful in war.)
10. Hisham, A.H. 105 (A.D. 724).
(Charles Martel checks the conquest of the Arabs in the West; rise of the Abbasides.)
11. Al-Walid II., A.H. 125 (A.D. 743).
(Slain by conspirators.)
12. Yazid III., A.H. 126 (A.D. 744).
(Died of plague.)
13. Ibrahim, A.H. 126 (A.D. 744)
14. Marwan, A.H. 127 (A.D. 744).
(Defeated by the Abbasides, pursued to Egypt, and slain on the banks of the Nile.)
The end of the Umayah dynasty, A.H. 132 (A.D. 749).
3. The Abbaside dynasty. Ad-Daulatu ‘l-’Abbasiyah (at Baghdad and Saumara).
1. Abu ‘l-’Abbas as-Saffah, A.H. 132 (A.D. 750).
(Resides at al-Kufah.)
2. Al-Mansur, A.H. 136 (A.D. 754).
(Abdu ‘r-Rahman, the Umaiyah Khalifah seizes Spain; Baghdad founded.)
3. Al-Mahdi, A.H. 158 (A.D. 775).
(Conquers Nicomedia of Sea of Marmors, making the Empress Irene pay tribute.)
4. Al-Hadi, A.H. 169 (A.D. 785).
5. Harunu r-Rashid, A.H. 170 (A.H. 786).
(The hero of Arabian Nights; a flourishing period of Arabian literature.)
6. Al-Amin, A.H. 193 (A.D. 809).
7. Al-Ma’mun, A.H. 198 (A.D. 813).
(The Augustan period of Arabian letters.)
8. Al-Mu’tasim, A.H. 218 (A.D. 833.)
(Makes the city of Saumara his capital; decline of the Khalifate.)
9. Al-Wasiq, A.H. 227 (A.D. 841).
10. Al-Mutawakkil, A.H. 232 (A.D. 847).
(A persecutor of the Jews and Christians; murdered.)
11. Al-Muntasir, A.H. 247 (A.D. 861).
12. Al-Musta’in, A.H. 248 (A.D. 862(.
13. Al-Mu’tazz, A.H. 252 (A.D. 866).
14. Al-Muhtadi, A.H. 255 (A.D. 869).
15. Al-Mu’tamid, A.H. 256 (A.D. 870).
(Re-established the capital at Baghdad.)
16. Mu’tazid, A.H. 279 (A.D. 892).
(Conquers Persia; Ismail Samain serizes Turkistan from the Khalifah.)
17. Al-Muktafi I., A.H. 289 (A.D. 902.)
(Ismail Samain seizes Persia from the Khalifah.)
18. Al-Muqtadir, A.H. 296 (A.D. 908).
(The Fatimites in Egypt.)
19. Al-Qahir, A.H. 320 (A.D. 932).
(Blinded and deposed.)
20. Ar-Razi, A.H. 322 (A.D. 934).
(The last of the Khalifahs who ever recited the khutbah.)
21. Al-Muttaqi, A.H. 329 (A.D. 940).
(Decline of the Abbasides.)
22. Al-Mustakfi, A.H. 333 (A.D. 944).
23. Al-Muti’, A.H. 334 (A.D. 945).
(The Fatimate Khalifahs seize all North Africa and Egypt.)
24. At-Tai’, A.H. 363 (A.D. 974).
25. Al-Qadir, A.H. 381 (A.D. 991).
(Mahmud of Ghazni conquers India.)
26. Al-Qa’im, A.H. 422 (A.D 1031).
(Rise of the Seljukian Turks.)
27. Al-Muqtadi, A.H. 467 (A.D. 1075).
(The first crusade; rise of Hasan Jubah, and his followers the Assassins.)
28. Al-Musta’zir, A.H. 487 (A.D. 1094).
(Jerusalem taken by the Fatimites.)
29. Al-Mustarshid, A.H. 512 (A.D. 1118).
(Murdered by the Assassins.)
30. Ar-Rashid, A.H. 529 (A.D 1185).
(Murdered by the Assassins.)
31. Al-Muktafi II., A.H. 530 (A.D. 1136).
(Defeated by the Turks; second crusade A.D. 1146.)
32. Al-Mustanjid, A.H. 555 (A.D. 1160).
(Disorders in Persia.)
33. Al-Mustahdi, A.H. 566 (A.D. 1170).
(Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt, conquers Syria.)
34. An-Nasir, A.H. 575 (A.D. 1180).
(Conquests of Jengiz Khan; third crusade, A.D. 1189.)
35. Az-Zahir, A.H. 622 (A.D. 1225).
36. Al-Mustansir, A.H. 623 (A.D. 1226).
(Persia subject to the Moghuls.)
37. Al-Musta’sim, A.H. 640 (A.D. 1240).
(Halaku, the Turk, a grandson of Jengiz Khan, takes Baghdad and puts the Khalifah to death, A.H. 656 (A.D. 1258). The uncle of the last Khalifah goes to Egypt, while the Khalifate continues only as a spiritual power.
(4) The ‘Usman, or Turk Dynasty (at Constantinople).
1. ‘Usman I. (Othman), A.D. 1299.
2. Urkhan, A.D. 1326.
3. Murad (Amurath), A.D. 1360.
4. Bayazid I., A.D. 1389.
5. Sulaiman I., A.D. 1402.
6. Musa, A.D. 1410.
7. Muhammad I., A.D. 1413.
8. Murad II., A.D. 1421.
9. Muhammad II., A.D. 1451.
10. Bayazid II., A.D. 1481.
11. Salim I. (Selim), A.D. 1512.
(Assumes the title of Khalifah.)
12. Sulaiman II., A.D. 1520.
13. Salim II., A.D. 1566.
14. Murad III., A.D. 1574.
15. Muhammad III., A.D. 1574.
16. Ahmad I., A.D. 1603.
17. Mustafa I., A.D. 1617.
(Deposed in favor of his nephew.)
18. ‘Usman II., A.D. 1618.
19. Mustafa I., A.D. 1622.
20. Murad IV., A.D. 1623.
21. Ibrahim, A.D. 1640.
22. Muhammad IV., A.D. 1649.
23. Sulaiman III., A.D. 1687.
24. Ahmad II., A.D. 1691.
25. Mustafa II., A.D. 1695.
26. Ahmad III., A.D. 1703.
27. Mahmud I., A.D. 1730.
28. ‘Usman III., A.D. 1754.
29. Mustafa III., A.D. 1757.
30. ‘Abdu ‘l-Hamid I., 1774.
31. Salim III., A.D. 1788.
32. Mustafa IV., A.D. 1807.
33. Mhamud II., 1808.
34. ‘Abdu ‘l-Majid, A.D. 1839.
35. ‘Abdu ‘l-Aziz, A.D. 1861.
36. Murad V., A.D. 1876.
37. ‘Abdu ‘l-Hamid, A.D. 1876.
II. – The Shi’ahs only regard those as rightful Imams (they do not use the word Khalifah) who are descended from ‘Ali (the son-in-law of the Prophet) and his wife Fatimah, the Prophet’s daughter. According to their traditions, Muhammad distinctly nominated ‘Ali as his successor when he was returning from his farewell pilgrimage. They say, that on his way to al-Madinah, the Prophet, with ‘Ali and certain other of the Companions stayed at a place called Ghadiri-i-Khum. And that it was here revealed by Gabriel that he should nominate ‘Ali as his successor. He is related to have said, “O ye people, I am your Prophet and ‘Ali is my successor. From us (i.e. ‘Ali and my daughter) shall descend al-Mahdi, the seal of the Imams.” (See Hayatu ‘l-Qulub, 334.)
According to the Shi’ahs, there have only been twelve lawful Imams –
1. ‘Ali, son-in-law of Muhammad.
2. Al-Hasan eldest son of ‘Ali and Fatimah.
3. Al-Husain, the second son of ‘Ali and Fatimah.
4. Zainu ‘l-Abidin, son of al-Husain.
5. Muhammad al-Baqir, son of Zainu ‘l-’Abidin.
6. Ja’faru ‘s-Sadiq, son of Muhammad al-Baqir.
7. Musa ‘l-Kazum, son of Ja’far.
8. ‘Ali ar-Raza, son of Mus.
9. Muhammad at-Taqi, son of ‘Ali ar-Raza.
10. ‘Ali an-Naqi, son of at-Taqi.
11. Al-Hasan al-’Askari, son of ‘Ali.
12. Muhammad, son of al-Askari, or the Imam Mahdi, who is supposed to be still alive, although he has withdrawn himself from the world, and that he will appear again as al-Mahdi, the Director, in the last days. [AL-MAHDI.]
The Kings of Persia have never claimed to be in any sense the successors of the Prophet.
Sultan Mahmud ‘Abdu’llah (A.H. 706, A.D. 1306), was the first monarch of Persia who proclaimed himself a Shi’ah.
III. -The Fatimide Khalifahs were a dynasty who claimed the Khalifate in the reign of the Abbaside Khalifah Muqtadir, their founder ‘Ubadiu ‘llah, pretending to be al-Mahid, “The Director,” and a descendent of Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet. They reigned over Egypt and North Africa from A.D. 910 to A.D. 1171, and were in all fourteen Khalifah.
1. ‘Ubaidu ‘llah A.D. 910.
(Ravage the coasts of Italy and invaded Egypt several times.)
2. Al-Qa’im, A.D. 933.
3. Al-Mansur, A.D. 946.
4. Al-Mu’izz, A.D. 955
(Established the Khalifate of the Fatimides in Egypt; defeated in Spain; took Sicily; founded Cairo, conquered Syria and Palestine.)
5. Al-’Aziz, A.D. 978.
(Married a Christian woman, whose brothers he made Patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem.)
6. Al- Hakim, A.D. 996.
(Persecuted Jews and Christians.)
7. Az-Zahir, A.D. 1021.
(The power of the Fatimide declines.)
8. Al-Mustansir, A.D. 1037.
(The rise of the Turks.)
9. Al-Musta’li, A.D. 1094.
(Defeated by the Crusaders.)
10. Al-Amir, A.D. 1101.
11. Al-Hafiz, A.D. 1129.
12. Az-Zafir, A.D. 1149.
13. Al-Fa’iz, A.D. 1154.
14. Al-Azid, A.D. 1160.
(The last of the Fatimide Khalifahs. His Wazir, Nuru ‘d-din, on the death of his master, submits to the Abbaside Khalifah Mustahdi, A.D. 1171.) [FATIMIYAH.]
IV. – The Khalifate of Cordova in Spain was founded by a descendant of the deposed Umaiyah dynasty. ‘Abdu ‘r-Rahman ibn Mu’awiyah. Muslim Amirs had ruled at Cordova from A.D. 711, when Tarik and Musa came over from Africa and invaded Spain. But ‘Abdu ‘r-Rahman was the first to assume the title of Khalifah.
The following is a list of the Khalifahs of Cordova and Granada from A.D. 755 to the fall of Granada, A.D. 1493: –
1. ‘Abdu ‘r-Rahman I., A.D. 755
(Cordova embellished and the Mazquits erected.)
2. Hisham I., A.D. 786.
3. ‘Abdu ‘r-Rahman II., A.D. 786.
4. Al-Hakam I., A.D. 796.
(Surnamed “The Cruel.”)
5. ‘Abdu r-Rahman III., A.D. 821.
6. Muhammad I., A.D. 852.
(Alfonso the Great obtains victories.)
7. Al-Munayyir, A.D. 886.
8. ‘Abdu’llah, A.D. 888.
(Flourishing period of literature and science at Cordova.)
9. ‘Abdu ‘r-Rahman IV., A.D. 912.
(The heroic age of Spain.)
10. Al-Hakam II., A.D. 961.
11. Hisham II, A.D. 976.
12. Sulaiman, A.D. 1012
(Defeated and executed by ‘Ali.)
13. ‘Ali, A.D. 1015.
14. ‘Abdu r-Rahman V., A.D. 1017.
15. Al-Qasim, A.D. 1018.
16. ‘Abdu r-Rahman VI., A.D. 1023.
17. Muhammad II., A.D. 1023.
18. Hisham III., A.D. 1026.
(Esteemed for his equitable and humane government.)
19. Jawahir, A.D. 1031.
20. Muhammad III., A.D. 1044.
21. Muhammad IV., A.D. 1060.
22. Muhammad V., A.D. 1069
(Siege of Toledo, A.D. 1082.)
23. Yusuf I., A.D. 1094.
24. ‘Ali, A.D. 1107.
25. Tashfin, A.D. 1144.
26. ‘Abdu ‘l-Mun’im, A.D. 1147.
27. Yusuf II., A.D. 1163.
28. Ya’qub I., A.D. 1178.
29. Muhammad VI., A.D. 1199.
30. Ya’qub II., A.D. 1213.
31. Abu Ya’qub, A.D. 1213.
32. Abu Malik, A.D. 1223.
33. Al-Ma’nur, A.D. 1225.
(Died in Morocco.)
34. Abu ‘Ali, A.D. 1225.
(Cordova surprised by Ferdinand of Leon and Castile, and taken. The fall of the Khalifate of Cordova, A.D. 1236. A Khalifate established by the Moors at Granada.)
The Khalifahs or Sutlans of Granada.
35. Muhammad I., A.D. 1238.
36. Muhammad II., A.D. 1273.
37. Muhammad III., A.D. 1302.
38. An-Nasir, A.D. 1309.
39. Isma’il A.D. 1313.
40. Muhammad IV., A.D. 1354.
41. Yusuf I., A.D. 1333.
42. Muhammad V., A.D. 1354.
43. Isma’il II., A.D. 1359.
44. Abu Sa’id, A.D. 1360.
45. Yusuf II., A.D. 1391.
46. Muhammad VI., A.D. 1396.
47. Yusuf III., A.D. 1408.
48. Muhammad VII., A.D. 1428.
49. Muhammad VIII., A.D. 1427.
50. Muhammad VII., (restored), A.D. 1429.
51. Yusuf IV., A.D. 1432.
52. Muhammad VII., (again restored), A.D. 1432.
53. Muhammad IX., A.D. 1445.
54. Muhammad X., A.D. 1454.
55. ‘Ali, A.D. 1463
56. Abu ‘Abdi ‘llah, A.D. 1483.
57. ‘Abdu ‘llah az-Zaggal, A.D. 1484.
(The fall of Granada, and the consolidation of the Spanish Monarchy, A.D. 1492.
Thus, amidst the acclamations of Christendom, Ferdinand and Isabella plated the symbol of Christian faith on the walls of Granada, and proclaimed the destruction of Muslim rule in Spain.
Based on Hughes, Dictionary of Islam